I. Relevant requirements of the state
On October 20, 1997, the General Office of the State Council forwarded the Opinions of the Ministry of Labor on the Serious Implementation of the Safety Production Responsibility System. The specific requirements are as follows:
(1) Safe production is a major event that affects the safety of life and property of the country and the people, economic development and social stability. All regions, departments (industries) and enterprises must put this work on the important agenda and earnestly grasp it. It must be in accordance with the general requirements of â€œCorporate Responsibility, Industry Management, State Supervision, and Labor Complianceâ€. And the principle of â€œmanagement must be managed in a tubeâ€ and â€œwho is in charge of who is responsibleâ€, establish and improve the leadership system for safety production and implement strict target management. The administrative official and the legal representative of the enterprise are the first responsible persons for safety production, and should assume overall leadership responsibility for safety production work; the deputy duties in charge of safety production should bear specific leadership responsibilities; in addition to the deputy duties of other work, in their work of charge Involving the content of safety production, it shall also assume corresponding leadership responsibilities. All regions, relevant departments (industries) and enterprises shall establish and improve the system of rewards and punishments for safety production assessment. Those who must perform their duties conscientiously and must know the outstanding achievements shall be rewarded with commendation. If the performance of the duties is not good and the safety production target plan cannot be achieved, it shall be criticized and educated or given corresponding administrative and economic penalties; for major and extraordinarily serious accidents caused by negligence or dereliction of duty, it shall be conducted in accordance with the law and other relevant regulations. Seriously deal with it, and never give up.
(2) The safety production planning of local people's governments at all levels is incorporated into the overall plan for national economic and social development, and the major issues of safe production in the region are seriously studied. It is necessary to strengthen the legal system for safe production, so that there are laws to follow, laws to follow, law enforcement to be strict, and violations of laws and regulations to ensure the implementation of relevant laws, regulations and national guidelines on safety production. Strengthen accident prevention work. According to the regulations, the risk is high, the occupational hazard is serious, and the construction of key projects is well approved. It is necessary to conduct safety feasibility demonstration and safety and health evaluation of the project; for major accidents and dangerous facilities and places that threaten public safety, Organize relevant departments to conduct safety assessments and implement responsible units for rectification; for major accidents that cannot be eliminated immediately, strict precautions must be taken and plans for disputes must be formulated. It is necessary to strengthen the propaganda and education of safe production, and strive to improve the consciousness and safety production awareness of the broad masses of people in compliance with the regulations.
(3) All relevant departments (industries) should earnestly strengthen the management of the safety production of their own departments (industries) and their subordinate units. According to the actual situation of this department (industry), we should formulate medium and long-term plans for safety production and annual work plans and organize their implementation. It is necessary to resolutely implement the state's laws, regulations, guidelines and policies on safe production, and formulate and implement safety production regulations, regulations and technical specifications of the department (industry). To strengthen the guidance and supervision of affiliated companies work safety, carefully examine the safety and production plans, and urge enterprises to ensure that the capital investment in production safety, help enterprises establish and improve the safe production incentive and restraint mechanisms to fully implement the responsibility system for production safety . It is necessary to effectively check the approval of the safety facilities design of the construction projects of the department (industry) and organize the completion acceptance according to the regulations, strengthen the rectification and monitoring of major accidents and hazards, and actively develop, promote and apply the technology of safety production. . It is necessary to carefully organize safety production inspections of departments (industries), do a good job in publicity, education and training of safety production, and strengthen the construction of safe production teams. In accordance with relevant regulations, we must seriously organize or participate in the investigation and handling of major accidents.
(4) All enterprises must strictly follow the state's laws, regulations, guidelines and policies on safety production, formulate detailed and detailed safety production plans, improve various rules and regulations and safety operation procedures, and implement the safety production responsibility system for all employees. It is necessary to strengthen the construction of safety production management institutions and ensure the capital investment in safe production in accordance with national regulations. It is necessary to continuously improve working conditions, conduct regular safety inspections, and promptly rectify potential accidents in accordance with regulations. In case of major accidents, they must immediately organize rescue and report to relevant departments. The legal representative of the enterprise shall report to the employee representative assembly or the general assembly of the work on a regular basis, and accept the supervision of the staff and the masses. It is necessary to strengthen the safety production education and lessons for employees, educate them to strictly abide by relevant laws, regulations, rules and regulations, and operational procedures, enhance safety awareness, help them learn and master the necessary safety production knowledge, and master the safe operation skills of posts. The ability to protect and handle emergencies.
(5) Labor administrative departments at all levels must conscientiously perform the comprehensive management functions of safe production and exercise the powers of state supervision. It is necessary to strengthen the integration and coordination of safety production work, analyze the safety production situation on a regular basis, study major problems in safety and raise corresponding countermeasures, and serve as a good assistant to the party committee and government. It is necessary to strengthen supervision and inspection of the implementation of relevant laws, regulations, guidelines and policies, so that law enforcement must be strict and illegal. We must conscientiously carry out regular safety supervision and accident monitoring work. We must promptly supervise and urge the relevant units to carry out rectification and monitoring of major accidents and hazards. Special equipment should be implemented in accordance with national regulations. Handling and approving work to strengthen the construction of the labor safety supervision team. It is necessary to actively organize scientific research on safety production management. Strive to explore a safe production management model that meets the requirements of the socialist market economy.
(6) All regions and relevant departments (industries) should attach great importance to the promotion of the supervision of the masses, the supervision of news and public opinion and the supervision of the society. It is necessary to give full play to the supervisory role of trade union organizations and actively support trade union organizations to carry out mass activities for employees to observe discipline and prevent accidents. It is necessary to use various news media to widely publicize laws, regulations, policies and policies on safe production, and to promote good examples. At the same time, for those typical incidents that cause major accidents due to lax management and failure to implement the responsibility system, they should be publicly exposed and accountable according to law. It is necessary to support and encourage the broad masses of the people to report violations of safety production laws and regulations, and it is strictly forbidden to retaliate against whistle-blowers and take safety production to a new level. [next]
Second, the safety production responsibility system and its importance
1. Enterprise safety production responsibility system
The responsibility system for production safety is based on the principle that â€œmanagement must be managed safelyâ€ and clearly stipulates the safety responsibility of each employee of the enterprise in the activities of the production department in the form of a system. It is an important part of the corporate job responsibility system and is the most basic and core security management system of the enterprise.
The responsibility system for production safety stipulates the scope of duties of the enterprise from the highest leadership, to the general cadres, technicians, and production workers, so as to take responsibility for each other, thereby promoting the company to ensure safety through planning, arrangement, summarization, evaluation and other means. The production policy has been effectively implemented.
The essence of the responsibility system for production safety is that in an enterprise, everyone has the right to manage safety, and also has the obligation to manage safety. It truly guarantees the completion of production tasks and guarantees no accidents.
The responsibility system for production safety clearly stipulates that the legal representative of the enterprise is the first safety owner of the enterprise. The director (manager) of the enterprise must implement the safety first policy of â€œsafety first, prevention firstâ€ into the production plan, plan and plan of the enterprise, and take the lead in implementation, while supervising and requiring other employees to operate in strict accordance with the regulations. .
The three basic elements of the safety production responsibility system are that the enterprise establishes a safety management organization, the legal representative of the enterprise must act as the first safety owner, and the enterprise must establish a sound safety management system.
2. The importance of enterprise safety production responsibility system
(1) The responsibility system for production safety is an inevitable requirement for the modern production of modern enterprises. Modern production is a complicated ergonomics. The unsafe and unsanitary problems in production are constantly generated and changed with the development of production and technology and equipment. Only by implementing safety responsibility can we solve the problem of continuous development and change in production. On the other hand, modern production has its extensive social nature, and the division of labor is becoming more and more detailed. To complete a production task, it must cooperate and cooperate closely. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the safety management of all employees and the whole process of production, and clearly determine the full responsibility to ensure safe production.
(2) The responsibility system for production safety is a summary of China's experience in safety production practices for many years and is an effective system. In 1963, the State Council promulgated the "Several Provisions on Strengthening Safety in Production in Enterprises", making safety production responsibility an important part of the "regulations", making safety production responsibility a basic legal system for safe production. Establish a legal basis for safety and production responsibility.
With the further deepening of China's economic reforms, especially the establishment of a socialist market economic system, collective enterprises, private enterprises, and foreign-funded enterprises have emerged continuously and occupy an increasing proportion in the economic system. China's security management system also Major changes have taken place. In 1995, in order to meet the needs of reform and development, the state established the labor safety and health work system of â€œcorporate responsibility, industry management, state supervision, mass supervision, and labor complianceâ€, and further implemented the safety production responsibility system. And nationwide, the establishment of a safety production responsibility system with the government, industry management departments, corporate legal persons or legal representatives as the first responsible person, the responsibility for safety production work to people, major issues have a special leader responsible for solving the situation basically form.
The practice of safety management for many years proves that all enterprises that have established a responsibility system for production safety can pay attention to safety production, conscientiously implement the principles, policies and regulations of labor protection, and earnestly take responsibility for production safety, while organizing production. We can actively take measures to improve working conditions and ensure safe production in a planned manner. On the contrary, corporate safety work will be carried out for unclear duties and mutual arbitrage, and industrial accidents and occupational diseases will continue to occur. Therefore, in order to do a good job in the safe production of the industry, we must establish a sound safety production responsibility system.
3. The specific role of enterprises in establishing a responsibility system for production safety
(1) Establishing a safety production responsibility system can enable all aspects of the company to share safety responsibilities in production, clear responsibilities, work division and cooperation, and work together to do safe work. Prevent and overcome the chaos, mutual excuse, and unresponsible phenomenon in safety work, and unify safety work and production work from organizational leadership.
(2) Establishing a safety production responsibility system can better play the role of the enterprise security professional agency, so that all aspects of responsibility clearly work together to do a good job in safety. This is not only the strengthening of safety work, but also the clearing of the duties of the safety full-time organization, so that the business work is on the right track, overcoming the phenomenon of busy work and unfair business, and giving full play to the professional security agency as the assistant in the safety work. And the role of the organizer of the safety scale.
(3) Establish a safety production responsibility system, investigate and deal with accidents, distinguish responsibility, learn lessons, and improve work. [next]
Third, the main content of mine safety production responsibility system
1. The legal representative of the mining enterprise (including the mine manager, manager, chairman, director of the mining bureau)
The mine manager, manager, chairman and director are the first responsible persons for the safe production of mining enterprises. They have overall leadership responsibility for the safety production of mining enterprises. Their responsibilities are as follows:
(1) Conscientiously implement the provisions of the Safety Production Law, the Mine Safety Law and other laws and regulations concerning mine safety production;
(2) Formulating a safety production management system for the enterprise;
(3) Equipped with qualified safety management personnel as required, and carry out follow-up inspections for each work place;
(4) Take effective measures to improve the working conditions of employees and ensure the timely supply of materials, equipment, instruments and labor protection articles required for safe production;
(5) Conduct safety education and training for employees;
(6) Formulate prevention and response plans for mine disasters;
(7) Take timely measures to deal with hidden dangers in the mine;
(8) Report mine accidents to the safety production supervision and management department and the competent department of enterprises in a timely and truthful manner, and actively organize emergency rescue.
2. Responsible for the safety production of the deputy director of the company responsible for production safety (deputy director, deputy manager, vice chairman, deputy director)
(1) Assisting the legal representative of the enterprise to specifically grasp the safety production work of the mining enterprise;
(2) Direct leadership responsibility for the safety production of mining enterprises.
(3) In charge of other aspects of corporate deputy leadership (deputy mine manager, deputy manager, vice chairman, deputy director) safety production responsibility
Responsible for the content related to safety production in the work of the company, and assume the corresponding safety production responsibilities.
3. Safety production duties of chief engineers (director engineers, chief engineers, and technical leaders) at all levels
The chief engineers at all levels have technical responsibility for the safe production of mining enterprises.
4. Safety production responsibility of the person in charge of the mining area (work area, workshop, pit stop)
(1) Implementing safety production rules and regulations, and taking overall responsibility for the safety and health of employees in this mining area in the production process;
(2) Reasonably organize production, and must include safety work in all activities of planning, arranging, inspecting, summarizing, and appraising production;
(3) Regularly check the safety status of the site and timely solve the hidden dangers and existing problems;
(4) Regularly educate employees on safety production knowledge, safety technology, procedures and labor discipline, and improve employees' awareness of safety production and professional safety and technical knowledge;
(5) Responsible for proposing projects and implementation measures to improve working conditions;
(6) Responsible for the timeliness and correctness of the casualties and occupational diseases registration, statistics and reports in the mining area, analyze the reasons, and formulate improvement measures;
(7) Organizing training for workers of special types of work, and must pass the strict examination and pass the qualification certificate before they can be employed.
5, team leader, section chief safety production responsibility
(1) Organizing miners to learn safe operating procedures and relevant safety regulations of mining enterprises and mining areas, educating workers to strictly abide by labor discipline and operate according to regulations;
6. Team leader and section chief safety production responsibility
(1) Organize miners to learn safe operating procedures and relevant safety production regulations for mining enterprises and mining areas, educate workers to strictly abide by labor discipline, and operate according to regulations;
(2) Always check the machinery and equipment, tools and safety and sanitizers used by the miners in this section and the team to keep them in good condition;
(3) Carry out daily monitoring, management and inspection of the hazard sources existing in the working area of â€‹â€‹the work section and the team;
(4) Organize the work place to maintain clean and civilized production;
(5) Organizing safety production competitions and competitions for work sections and teams, and learning and promoting safety production experience;
(6) Analyze the causes of casualties in a timely manner, learn lessons, and propose improvement measures;
(7) The right to refuse the illegal command of the superior. [next]
7. Safety production responsibility of the safety management department
(1) As a good assistant and staff of mine leaders in safety production work, assist mining enterprise leaders to do safe production work;
(2) Supervise and inspect the implementation of mine safety laws, regulations, procedures, standards and rules and regulations;
(3) Formulating and reviewing the safety production rules and regulations of the enterprise and supervising the implementation;
(4) Organizing and reviewing projects to improve working conditions and supervising the completion of the project;
(5) Conduct on-site inspections frequently, grasp the danger source dynamics in time, study and solve the hidden dangers and existing safety problems, and take emergency measures in case of emergency situations that endanger personal safety, have the right to order to stop production first, and then report the leadership. Research processing
(6) Organizing and promoting safety production publicity and education, experience exchange and training;
(7) Participate in the investigation and handling of casualties, conduct statistical analysis and report on casualties and occupational diseases, and propose preventive measures to supervise the implementation;
(8) Formulate a management system for labor protection articles and supervise the implementation;
(9) Guide the work of the section and the team security officer.
8. Functional production safety responsibility
All relevant professional organizations in production, technology, design, power, machinery and equipment, ventilation, labor and capital, security, supply and marketing, transportation, finance, etc. of mining enterprises shall be responsible for fulfilling the requirements of safe production within their respective business scopes, and undertake the business in charge. The corresponding safety production responsibilities.
9, safety officer safety production responsibility
(1) Organizing and learning the rules and regulations related to safety production, supervision and inspection work, compliance with rules and regulations and labor discipline;
(2) Always check the safety of equipment and work sites;
(3) Organizing and analyzing the causes of casualties and taking preventive measures;
(4) Finding an emergency that endangers personal safety, has the right to stop its operations, and immediately report to the team leader and section chief for handling;
(5) Educate employees to use personal protective equipment correctly.
10. Workers' safety production duties
(1) Conscientiously abide by mine safety laws, regulations and enterprise safety production rules and regulations and operating procedures, not to violate the rules, and to prevent others from violating the rules;
(2) Accept safety education and training, actively participate in safety production activities, and actively propose to improve safety work;
(3) Have the right to criticize, report and accuse the problems existing in the work of the unit's safety production;
(4) The right to refuse illegal command and force the risky operation;
(5) If hidden dangers or other unsafe factors are found, they should be reported immediately. If an emergency situation directly endangering personal safety is found, it is necessary to stop the operation or take the necessary measures to evacuate the work site and actively participate in the rescue.
Fourth, the operating mechanism of the enterprise safety production responsibility system
According to China's safety management system, enterprises are responsible for their own safety management, that is, implementing a safety management mechanism of self-reliance, self-discipline, and self-management. Enterprises must establish an operational mechanism suitable for their safety production responsibility system according to their own production and operation characteristics. Due to the differences in products, systems, business methods, production scales, etc., there is no unified model for the responsibility system for production safety. Many companies have done a lot of work to explore the safety management of the new economic system and have achieved fruitful results. A lot of experience is worth promoting. To sum up these experiences, it can be summarized that the safety production management operation system should be complete and strict under the premise that the management organization and management personnel are complete, in place, powerful and diligent. It should include the following six "no".
1. "Rules make it impossible"
It is through the formulation of laws, regulations, regulations, decrees, policies, rules, systems, and standards to safeguard the common interests of society, regulate the behavior of members of society (including employers, business managers, and employees); define the members of society to organize production and Whether the behavior in the labor process is safe, and the unsafe acts are explicitly prohibited, so that they can lose any reasonable legitimacy that can be relied upon. There are two points to note in this respect: First, the rules should be comprehensive, thorough, and timely. Try not to give any form of safe behavior with rules and gaps and time encounters. Second, the rules are in pairs. The identification and prohibition of unsafe acts should be consistent with each other and not contradictory, and be in line with relevant international laws to adapt to the laws governing the operation of the world economy, including the safety certification of foreign capital production, the introduction of living equipment and the occupational safety of China's labor export. Health protection, etc. [next]
2. "Education does not violate"
With the rules, we must let the broad masses of cadres and workers know that they must not only know which industries are unsafe, can't do it, but also let them know why they are not safe and why they can't. So that they consciously abide by. "Behavior comes from thoughts", through the ideological education, labor protection policy education, safety knowledge education, typical experience and accident lessons education to improve the safety and technical level of workers and the ability to prevent accidents. Of course, relying on or relying too much on education is incomplete. From the current reality of enterprise safety production, it is still more effective to use it in conjunction with other methods.
3. "Supervising makes it difficult"
The system is the carrier of the mechanism. The State Council proposed in 1993 that China's safety management system is â€œcorporate responsibility, industry management, state supervision, and mass supervisionâ€, which provides a prerequisite for the construction of safety management mechanism. Based on the successful experience of foreign countries and China, effective supervision should include the following four categories.
(1) The supervision of the masses has two forms of supervision. First, the individual employees directly criticize, suggest, appeal and lodge complaints about the issue of safe production. Second, through the organized conduct of mass supervision and inspection by the trade unions, it is characterized by Subtlety, temperament, and regularity.
(2) Industry management, in addition to the need for the masses to supervise me, we must rely on the competent department of the enterprise to make overall planning, unified steps, research countermeasures, supervision and inspection, and coordinated solution. It is a self-restraint mechanism within the implementation system, and is the national safety production supervision organization. It can be replaced, it is planned and standardized.
(3) State supervision, using state power in the name of the state, carrying out supervision, correction and punishment for enterprises and relevant agencies to perform safety production duties and implementing safety production laws, regulations and policies, and it has mandatory impartiality and authority. Sex.
(4) Public opinion supervision, mainly through the news media, exposes violations of safety production laws, regulations, and policies. Its spread is fast and has a great impact.
4, "strict punishment does not dare"
There is no penalty for members of society who violate safety production laws, regulations, rules and standards. The rules are empty texts, and supervision is empty talk. Effective punishment should adhere to three points: First, there must be strength, that is, the punishment for members of the illegal society should greatly exceed the cheapness of the offenders, so that they feel that they are not worth the loss; second, timely, must not wait until an accident occurs; It is efficient, minimizes the fish that slips through the net, and does not allow the law to violate the rules. It can neither be used to "respond to the law" nor to kill the chicken and scare the monkey. Only in this way can the violations become a high-cost, high-risk behavior choice. The punishment should include the following elements in the structure: first, there must be a penalty basis, that is, rules should be made as clear as possible, quantifiable, and easy to operate; Secondly, there must be executors. The status and power of the executors should be independent of the object of punishment. The third is the combination of multiple means, including legal, political, economic, administrative, and public opinion.
5, "Ming reward makes it not worthy"
For members of society who conscientiously implement safety production laws, regulations, and regulations, and those who resist and report violations, members of society who have contributed to the prevention and rescue of accidents shall have explicit incentives and provide development opportunities. Through the appreciation, more people are willing to obey the rules and discipline, and maintain the dignity of provincial laws and regulations.
6, "Information makes it correct"
Safety management is primarily based on safety information. It includes records, analysis and statistics on accidents and occupational injuries; research, design, production and inspection techniques for occupational safety and health equipment, relevant laws, regulations, technical standards and their dynamics, related education, training, publicity and society. Activities; relevant domestic and international new technology dynamics, hidden danger assessment and technical and economic analysis, consulting, decision-making systems, etc. The establishment, improvement and operation of the safety information system is an important indicator of the level of safety management technology.
The above-mentioned "six no" is integrated, which is the safe production management operation mechanism. It includes the rules system, education system, supervision system, reward and punishment system, and information system. For the effective functioning of the entire safety production management operation mechanism, "six no" is indispensable. In the process of production management, management agencies and management personnel must strengthen their sense of function. Only in this way can they have a safe production in the true sense.
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